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What are the Three Common Types of Flat Roof Construction in the UK

Flat Roofers Gloucestershire GL5 Stroud

Flat roofs are a common fixture in UK building construction. Compared to pitched roofs, they offer a variety of advantages that make them suitable for many residential, commercial and industrial applications. As flat roofs have become more popular, several standard construction methods have emerged as the most common across the UK.

There are three main types of flat roof construction typically used:

Each method has its own set of components, advantages, and disadvantages that dictate its suitability depending on factors like budget, building size, climate conditions and more. It’s important for building owners, architects and roofing contractors to understand these key differences when planning a flat roof building project. Choosing the right system and materials can directly impact durability, lifespan, maintenance needs and other considerations over the long run.

This guide provides an in-depth look at the three main flat roof construction types used across the UK:

Built-Up Roofing (BUR)

Built-Up Roofing (BUR) has been used for over a century and remains one of the most common commercial flat roofing systems. As the name suggests, BUR systems are assembled from multiple layers of waterproof materials installed in place.

The main components of a BUR system include:

  • Bitumen: The waterproof bonding agent, either asphalt, coal tar pitch or polymer-modified bitumen.
  • Reinforcing Fabric: Layers of fiberglass, polyester or organic felt.
  • Aggregate: Top protective layer of gravel or stone.

These components are combined on the roof deck surface using hot bitumen or liquid adhesive, building up the weatherproof membrane layer by layer. The fabric reinforcement provides strength and stability while the aggregate protects the bitumen and fabrics from weathering.


BUR flat roofs have remained popular in commercial buildings for good reason. Key benefits include:

  • Durability – Layers of fabric and bitumen result in an exceptionally durable, resilient finished surface. Properly maintained BUR roofs can last over 30 years.
  • Weather Resistance – Multiple waterproof membranes provide excellent protection from rain, snow and wind.
  • Cost-Effective – The raw materials for BUR systems are relatively affordable. Their long lifespans also minimize lifetime costs.
  • Proven Technology – With over a century of use, BUR’s performance capabilities and failure modes are well understood.


While the many layers make BUR systems extremely durable, they also lead to some downsides:

  • Complex Installation – Correct hot bitumen application requires significant skill to avoid defects. Many layers require more time as well.
  • Heavy Weight – Aggregate, multiple fabric reinforcements and flood coats add a lot of weight demanding stronger roof structures.
  • Limited Design Flexibility – The layers, gravel and pitch minimums restrict aesthetic options for buildings.

Single-Ply Membrane Roofing

Single-ply membrane roofs have grown steadily in popularity thanks to their simple, lightweight construction. These systems rely on a single layer of flexible, waterproof synthetic membrane installed directly onto the roof deck.

Common single-ply membrane materials include:

Regardless of the material, single-ply membranes are always installed as a single sheet with sealed seams across the entire roof.


The simplicity of single-ply membranes help make them one of the fastest growing commercial roofing systems. Benefits include:

  • Lightweight – Just one thin, flexible membrane vs. heavy aggregate and fabrics.
  • Quick, Easy Installation – Large sheets fuse together easily for faster application.
  • Energy Efficiency – Seamless, reflective membranes enhance insulation.
  • Design Versatility – Sleek appearance, ideal for unique roof shapes.
  • Long Lifespans – Durable materials provide 20+ year lifespans.


While very capable materials, single-ply membranes have some vulnerabilities owners should consider:

  • Punctures – No protective aggregate leaves membranes exposed to damage.
  • Shorter Lifespans – On average, do not last as long as best BUR systems.
  • Chemical Vulnerability – Petroleum-based products can degrade certain membranes.

Proper precautions are necessary during installation and use to avoid these failure risks.

Green Roof Systems

Green roofs are a rapidly growing sustainable building trend in the UK. Unlike the other systems, green roofs have a layered construction designed to support living vegetation on the roof surface itself.

Typical green roof components include:

  • Waterproof Membrane – Layer of waterproof EPDM, TPO or PVC membrane.
  • Drainage – Thin layered system to channel excess water.
  • Growing Medium – Soil or artificial mix to growth plants.
  • Vegetation – Suitable grass, succulents, shrubs or other plants.

The layered construction allows buildings to support plant growth and enjoy the many benefits.


When properly constructed and maintained, green roofs provide a number of clear advantages:

  • Environmental Benefits – Plants improve air quality, reduce stormwater runoff and lower urban heat.
  • Enhanced Insulation – Growing medium and plants add thermal resistance.
  • Noise Reduction – Soil and plants absorb reflective sound.
  • Aesthetic Appeal – Views, recreation space, or improved surroundings.

As sustainability concerns grow, green roofs can meaningfully contribute to eco-friendly, energy efficient buildings.


Despite their many perks, green roofs also come with some downsides to consider:

  • Higher Initial Cost – All components plus plant installation results in higher upfront expenses.
  • Weight Load – Saturated soil and mature plants can add substantial dead weight loading.
  • Maintenance – Landscaping care, irrigation, fertilization and drainage maintenance is vital.

When factors like budget, structural capacity, or maintenance capability are limited, standard flat roof solutions may be better fits for some buildings, a perspective often emphasized by Supreme Roofing Stroud.

Frequently Asked Questions

Green roof popularity and single-ply advances have added more options, but BUR still remains a top choice across many UK buildings. When considering any flat roofing project, knowing the right questions to ask is critical:

What factors should be considered when choosing a flat roof construction type?

  • Local building regulations and standards
  • Lifespan goals and maintenance preferences
  • Affordability constraints
  • Structural weight capacity
  • Roof traffic or access needs
  • Climate and weather extremes

Carefully weighing needs in these areas helps identify the ideal system.

Are flat roofs suitable for all types of buildings?

Flat roofs can work well on many residential, commercial and industrial buildings but may not suit every application. Pitched roofs often handle heavy rain, snow and wind loads more effectively. Facility use and contents also impact material suitability. Consulting qualified roofing experts is the best way evaluate if a flat or sloped roof makes the most sense.

How can one maintain and extend the lifespan of a flat roof?

No roof lasts forever, but proactive maintenance pays major dividends for flat roof longevity:

  • Yearly inspections noting membrane defects, leaks, drainage issues.
  • Quick action on any repairs to prevent small problems becoming major.
  • Checking and clearing debris from drains and outlets.
  • Reapplying protective coatings/sealants as needed.
  • For green roofs, tending, irrigating, and fertilizing plants.

Setting reminders and listening to facilities staff helps catch problems early. Small maintenance costs pale next to emergency leak repairs or full roof replacement!

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